DOPRAVNÝ ÚRAD

Unmanned aircraft flight operations

The Transport Authority issue – Filetype iconDecision No 2 2019 of 14 November 2019, On determination of conditions for unmanned aircraft flight operations and restriction of specific categories aircrafts flight operations in the airspace of the Slovak Republic. This Decision enters into force on 15 November 2019.

Actual information´s regarding to use of the Slovak Republic airspace, the Aeronautical Information Publication of the Slovak Republic (AIP SR), NOTAM and the electronic VFR Manual (VFRM)  are available at this link – https://aim.lps.sk.

Online aeronautical chart of the Slovak Republic – Filetype iconhttps://gis.lps.sk/.

Unmanned Aircraft (an aircraft able to fly without pilot on board) with maximum take-off mass less than 150kg according to § 7 Subpar. 2 of Act No 143/1998 Coll. On civil aviation (Aviation Act) in the form of its later changes and amendments to certain acts; to operate in the airspace only under conditions, that take into account flight safety and as determined by agreement between the Transport Authority and the Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic.

Unmanned aircraft means an aircraft able to fly without a pilot on board (§ 7 of Aviation Act). Unmanned aircrafts are divided into:

– Autonomous aircraft (means unmanned aircraft equipped with an independent in-flight control system, that does not allow human control intervention to a flight operation)

– Remotely piloted aircraft (means remote pilot operated unmanned aircraft by remote pilot station not located on board of an unmanned aircraft)

– Model aircraft (means unmanned aircraft unable of automatic flight to a designated place, used only for sport, competition or recreational purposes)

In all cases, the airspace of the Slovak Republic applies an obligation to operate aircraft in compliance with conditions and requirements established for the use of airspace. Unmanned aircraft flight operation shall be performed in a way to not compromise safety of other aircrafts, persons, property on the ground and to ensure environment protection from noise level and pollutants emissions of an unmanned aircraft. Remote pilot shall not perform flight operation under psychoactive substance influence.

Unmanned aircraft flight operation may be performed in Category A unmanned aircraft flight operations (“low risk operations” mostly for recreational purposes) or in Category B unmanned aircraft flight operations (“higher risk operations” mostly for aerial works, individual unmanned aircraft flight operations on base of authorization by the Transport Authority and unmanned aircraft with maximum take-off mass more than 25kg).

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GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR FLIGHT OPERATIONS

The general conditions for unmanned aircraft flight operations shall be followed at all times.

The remote pilot is required prior flight operation to get acquainted and shall conduct flight operation in accordance with, in particular:

  1. Meteorological situation;
  2. Use of airspace;
  3. Unmanned aircraft operating conditions;
  4. Manufacturer instructions for safe flight operations;
  5. Performance, manufacturing and airworthiness limitations of unmanned aircraft;
  6. Flight and emergency procedures specified by unmanned aircraft manufacturer.

The unmanned aircraft flight operations shall be performed in such way to not compromise safety of other aircrafts, persons, and properties on the ground, and to ensure environment protection from noise level and pollutants emissions of the unmanned aircraft.

Remote pilot shall maintain flight operation in visual line of sight (VLOS) at all times, observe surrounding area, obstructions and avoid other air traffic according to see and avoid method.

Flight operation in uncontrolled (Class G) airspace shall be conducted in height not greater than 120 m (400 ft) above highest obstacle within a 30 m radius from the unmanned aircraft.

Within boundaries of uncontrolled aerodrome air traffic zone (ATZ) the flight operation shall be conducted only in coordination with the aerodrome operator.

It is restricted to conduct flight operations at night, an exception can be obtained by consent of the Transport Authority only after declaration of safety procedure.

The unmanned aircraft shall not be used to spray any chemical substances or to drop objects, it shall not apply for aerial work operator.

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CATEGORY A FLIGHT OPERATIONS

To conduct a Category A unmanned aircraft flight operation it is not required registration of an unmanned aircraft at the Transport Authority or remote pilot certificate. Category A unmanned aircraft flight operation may be performed during the day, maintaining unmanned aircraft in visual line of sight (VLOS).

Additional restrictions depending on Class of unmanned aircraft (based on maximum take-off mass MTOW) – unmanned aircraft flight operations shall be conducted in subcategories of Category A:

Subcategory A1:

By Class C0 unmanned aircraft (Maximum take-off mass less than 0,25 kg) and Class C1 unmanned aircraft (maximum take-off mass less than 0,9 kg) in such a way that people assemblies are not overflown. In controlled airspace* at horizontal distance of more than 3,7 km from airport reference point (ARP) and up to 30 m above ground level (AGL). Follow-me mode may be used  in distance of up to 30 m of unmanned aircraft from remote pilot.

Subcategory A2:

By Class C2 unmanned aircraft (maximum take-off mass less than 4 kg) in distance of more than 50 m from uninvolved persons. In a way, that densely populated locations of cities, villages, zones or urban concentrations, open air people assemblies, constructions, airport protection zones and protected areas are not overflown. In controlled airspace* at horizontal distance of more than 3,7km from airport reference point (ARP) and up to 30 m above ground level (AGL).

Subcategory A3:

By Class C3 unmanned aircraft (maximum take-off mass less than 25 kg) and Class C4 unmanned aircraft (only model aircraft with maximum take-off mass less than 25 kg) in distance from uninvolved people, taking into account method of propulsion and characteristics of an unmanned aircraft, so they are not exposed to excessive noise level and not endangered by unmanned aircraft in flight emergency situation, but at least 50 m from such persons. In a way, that densely populated locations of cities, villages, zones or urban concentrations, open air people assemblies, constructions, airport protection zones and protected areas are not overflown. In controlled airspace* at a distance of more than 5,6 km from airport reference point (ARP) and up to 30 m above ground level (AGL).

* As controlled airspace is considered Controlled Traffic Region (CTR), In the Slovak Republic mainly in area of Bratislava, Pieštany, Žilina, Sliač, Poprad, Prešov, Košice airports.

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CATEGORY B FLIGHT OPERATIONS

If an unmanned aircraft flight operation is conducted in manner other than those under Category A flight operations, in particular:

  1. At night if an unmanned aircraft is equipped with adequate lighting;
  2. In controlled airspace if unmanned aircraft flight operation is in coordination with relevant air traffic control unit;
  3. In distance from uninvolved persons other than distance conditions specified for Category A unmanned aircraft flight operation;
  4. By an unmanned aircraft with maximum take-off mass is more than 25 kg.

Conduct of Category B unmanned aircraft flight operation is dependent on authorization by the Transport Authority. Authorization by the Transport Authority is not required from holders of aerial work operator certificate.

An application for authorization and determination of conditions shall be sent by unmanned aircraft operator at least 30 days prior planned date of flight operation by the form:

Filetype iconF390 – Application for authorization of Category B unmanned aircraft flight operations.

Attachment to application under the first sentence shall be also the risk analysis, created according to Procedure of the Transport Authority (14/2019) and shall include in particular:

a) Purpose of an unmanned aircraft flight operation,

b) Characteristics of unmanned aircraft flight operation,

c) Geographic characteristics of a planned location,

d) Threat level to property and health of persons on the ground that may be caused by an unmanned aircraft flight operation,

e) Class of airspace in location of unmanned aircraft flight operation,

f) Class, construction, performance and safety systems used by an unmanned aircraft,

g) Organizational and risk mitigation measures proposal for unmanned aircraft flight operation.

14/2019 Procedure of the Transport Authority for the risk analysis implementation and assessment related to Category B unmanned aircraft operations

 

Additional conditions to conduct Category B unmanned aircraft flight operation are that an unmanned aircraft shall be insured for liability of damage caused by unmanned aircraft to the third parties, remote pilot is holder of remote pilot certificate and an unmanned aircraft is registered at the Transport Authority.

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COORDINATION IN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE UNDER CATEGORY B UNMANNED AIRCRAFT FLIGHT OPERATIONS

If remote pilot in Category B unmanned aircraft operations is planning to conduct an unmanned aircraft flight operation in controlled airspace in different manner than those specified in Subcategories A1, A2 and A3 unmanned aircraft flight operations, according to those flight operation in Control Traffic Region (CTR) it is only possible at horizontal distance of more than 3,7 km respectively 5,6 km and up to 30 m (100 ft) above ground level, an unmanned aircraft operator must meet all requirements of category B unmanned aircraft flight operations and shall:

  1. At least 24 hours prior of unmanned aircraft flight operation deliver by e-mail to relevant air traffic control unit an application for flight authorization of unmanned aircraft in controlled airspace;
  2. Remote pilot or other involved person in preparation of unmanned aircraft flight operation informs 15 minutes before estimated take-off time by telephone relevant air traffic control unit and request flight authorization for unmanned aircraft flight operation in controlled airspace;
  3. Remote pilot or other involved person in preparation of unmanned aircraft flight operation shall immediately inform by telephone relevant air traffic control unit immediately about flight operation interruptions, flight operation termination and other intentions regarding to unmanned aircraft flight operation;
  4. Remote pilot shall comply with the instructions to immediately terminate, interrupt or limit unmanned aircraft flight operation, in particular altitude, location and time by telephone from air traffic control unit if necessary;
  5. Remote pilot shall immediately inform about flight emergency situation if such a situation happens.

Applications for flight authorization with unmanned aircraft in controlled airspace:

Filetype iconUAS CTR Štefanik

Filetype iconUAS CTR Piešťany

Filetype iconUAS CTR Žilina

Filetype iconUAS CTR Tatry

Filetype iconUAS CTR Košice

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AERIAL WORKS (COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS)

Aerial works are services in return for remuneration in agriculture, surveying, observation, construction, healthcare, advertising, photography, research and the like. Aerial works shall only be performed with authorization certificate issued by the Transport Authority. The Transport Authority shall determine in authorization certificate range of flight operations and conditions for aerial work. To issue Aerial work operator certificate and issue of decision on determination of conditions for an unmanned aircraft must be preceded by:

  • Unmanned aircraft registration at the Transport Authority;
  • Remote pilot theoretical and practical examination at the Transport Authority;
  • Create an operations manual.

The fee for aerial work operator certificate is according to the Act No 145/1995 Coll. Subpar. 91 (m) On administrative fees – 600 EUR.

List of aerial work operator certificate holders: AW CERTIFICATE HOLDERS

Until Aerial work operator certificate is issued, an applicant may conduct by registered unmanned aircraft Category A flight operations.

Remote pilot while performing aerial works may only be a person who is holder of remote pilot certificate issued by the Transport Authority. Conditions for its obtaining is successful theoretical and practical examination at the Transport Authority.

All operations manual issued by holders of aerial work operator certificate and authorized during Decision No 1/2015 of 19 august 2015 period of validity remain valid. To add Category B unmanned aircraft flight operations it is required to record changes to operations manual.

Application for issue of unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate:

Filetype iconF353 – Application for issue unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate

Application for extension of unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate:

Filetype iconF354 – Application for extension of unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate

Application for change of unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate:

Filetype iconF352 – Application for change of unmanned aircraft aerial work operator certificate

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MODEL AIRCRAFT WITH MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF MASS EXCEEDING 25 KG

 Model aircraft with maximum take-off mass more than 25 kg and less than 150 kg shall conduct flight operations during the day under condition that:

  1. It is in compliance with conditions specified for Subcategory A3 unmanned aircraft flight operations;
  2. Remote pilot is holder of remote pilot certificate issued by the Transport Authority or any equivalent document issued by a competent authority of another Member State of the European Union or a State Party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area;
  3. Model aircraft is registered at the Transport Authority or is in a similar manner registered in another Member State of the European Union or in a State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area;
  4. Model aircraft operator conduct and fulfils insurance contract for liability of damage caused by unmanned aircraft to the third parties.

In case that model aircraft (with more than 25 kg) flight operation is to be conducted under conditions other than those specified above, it is necessary to request the Transport Authority for authorization to perform such a flight operation.

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EXECUTION OF THEORETICAL EXAMINATION

At the moment, unfortunately it is not possible to execute theoretical examination in English language.

If a person operating an unmanned aircraft is holder of any aircraft category pilot license issued by the competent authority according to Regulation No 1178/2011 in its current form, the Transport Authority require the theoretical examination to be executed only from air law and the air traffic control procedures subject.

If the person operating an unmanned aircraft does not meet the conditions above, it is necessary to:

  • Request by Application F283-B the Transport Authority / Aviation Personnel Licensing Department to execute theoretical examination. The application must be sent by post to the address of the Transport Authority or personally at the Registry of the Transport Authority;
  • Deliver completed and signed binding application for theoretical examination F182-B (by post to the address of the Transport Authority, personally at the Registry of the Transport Authority or scanned by e-mail to letecky.personal@nsat.sk  – recommended at least 14 days before scheduled date of the examination).

An applicant does not pay fee for theoretical examination.

For theoretical examination is possible to study in the form of self-study. Our recommended study materials are available in Czech language:

Učebnice pilota, vydavateľstvo Svět křídel;

Kocourek, Řešátko – DRONY – Praktická příručka pro majitele dronú DJI; 2017; vydavateľstvo Agentura Rubico, s.r.o., Česká republika, ISBN: 978-80-7346-228-4;

Karas – 222 tipú a trikú pro drony; 2017; vydavateľstvo Computer Press Brno, Česká republika; ISBN: 978-80-251-4874-7;

Hohenlohe – DRONY; 2016; vydavateľstvo Alpress Frýdek-Místek, Česká republika; ISBN: 978-80-7543-234-6;

Karas, Tichý – Drony; 2016; vydavateľstvo Computer Press Brno, Česká republika, ISBN: 978-80-251-4860-4.

Place and form of theoretical examination

Theoretical examination is executed at the Transport Authority at predetermined dates and times. The computer test is executed in Slovak language, consists 100 questions and time for examination is 90 minutes. Questions are answered in the form of multiple choice of answers. There are three answers to each question, of which only one is correct.

Theoretical examination consists of the following subjects:

  • Air law and the air traffic control procedures;
  • General knowledge of the aircraft;
  • Aircraft performance and flight planning;
  • Meteorology;
  • Performance procedures;
  • Basics of flight;
  • Communication.

Evaluation of theoretical examination

An applicant is evaluated as PASSED if obtained at least 75% in all required subjects. If an applicant is not successful in one or more subjects is evaluated as failed. It is necessary to repeat theoretical examination from subjects that an applicant was evaluated as failed. The date of the next attempt is possible after delivery of the binding application (F182-B) in the following published examination dates.

In case if an applicant executing theoretical examination is evaluated as failed from one subject of all the subjects required four times in a row or has used up to all six available attempts within 18 months of the first attempt to pass the examination an APLD employee evaluates an applicant as FAILED.

In case if an applicant executing theoretical examination is not successful (evaluated as FAILED) and used all above options, it is necessary to repeat the entire examination. An APLD employee shall advise an applicant to execute theoretical training in the training facility and re-submit the application to execute theoretical examination only after completion of the training.                                                                                    To issue Remote pilot certificate is required:

  • Deliver Application F081-B,
  • Deliver the original of application to execute practical examination and report from remote pilot practical examination (F166-B)

An applicant does not pay fee for issue of remote pilot certificate.

An applicant shall be informed when remote pilot certificate is issued by telephone or e-mail as specified in application.

To get certificate:

  • In person, at registered office of the Transport Authority during page hours or by agreement (02/48 777 558),
  • Based on mandate at registered office of the Transport Authority during page hours or by agreement (02/48 777 558),
  • Certificate may be sent by mail to the address noted in application.

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EXECUTION OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

Practical examination can be executed after the successful completion of theoretical examination, under supervision, according to the instructions at place designated by the inspector of the Transport Authority with registered unmanned aircraft at the Transport Authority. For practical examination it is necessary to bring an unmanned aircraft register confirmation letter and if an applicant is not unmanned aircraft owner, also a document proving the use of an unmanned aircraft (loan contract / lease contract or other contract between an applicant and unmanned aircraft owner proving that an applicant is authorized to operate an unmanned aircraft). An applicant is responsible for unmanned aircraft flight operation during practical examination.

Practical examinations will be executed at either Štefan Banič Airport in Boleráz (LZTR) or at Nitra – Janíkovce airport (LZNI) at the following preliminary dates:

Practical examinations
Month Date
September 10th (Friday)
October 1st (Friday)
October 29th (Friday)

 

To apply for practical examination is necessary to send an application via email at least 3 days before the examination date. Participation in the practical examination is possible only after application is confirmed.

In case of interest of a larger group of applicants, it is also possible to arrange an individual practical examination at a different date and place by agreement.

Application for practical examination and any other questions can be addressed to Filip.pechac@nsat.sk.

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